Cryogens in aerospace industry

Cryogens such as liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid oxygen (LOx) and liquid methane (LCH4) are widely used in aerospace industry for rocket engines. The study of the jets is extremely important since the atomisation process of these liquids is directly related to the engine efficiency quality of combustion. The vapour produced from cryogenic liquids like LN2 or LCH4 are also extremely cold and can be extremely harmful. The vapour might condense the moisture in the surrounding air, creating a highly visible fog. This fog can also be formed around cold equipment when no release of the cold liquid or vapour has occurred. A key thing to remember is that these fog clouds do not define the vapour cloud. They define the area where the vapour is still cold enough to condense the moisture in the air. An example of the Large-Eddy-Simulations capabilities of the solver for simulating liquid methane jets atomisation is shown below: